Lowenstein, J. H., Cribb, C., Shell, P., Yuan, Y., & Nittrouer, S. (2019). Children's suffix effects for verbal working memory reflect phonological coding and perceptual grouping. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 183, 276-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.03.003 / pdf

Lowenstein, J. H. & Nittrouer, S. (2019). Perception-production links in children's speech. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 62, 853-867. doi: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-18-0178 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Krieg, L. M., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2018). Speech recognition in noise by children with and without dyslexia: How is it related to reading? Res. Dev. Disabil. 77, 98-113. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.04.014. pdf

Moberly, A. C., Harris, M. S., Boyce, L. & Nittrouer, S. (2017). Speech recognition in adults with cochlear implants: The effects of working memory, phonological sensitivity, and aging. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 60, 1046-1061. doi: 10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0119. pdf

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J. H., Wucinich, T., & Moberly, A. C. (2016). Verbal working memory in older adults: The roles of phonological capacities and processing speed. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 59, 1520-1532. doi: 10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-15-0404. pdf

Moberly, A. C., Lowenstein, J. H., & Nittrouer, S. (2016). Word recognition variability with cochlear implants: "Perceptual attention" versus "auditory sensitivity". Ear Hear. 37, 14-26. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000204. pdf

Nittrouer, S., Tarr, E., Wucinich, T., Moberly, A. C., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2015). Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2004-2014. doi: 10.1121/1.4916203. pdf

Lowenstein, J.H. & Nittrouer, S. (2015). All cues are not created equal: The case for facilitating the acquisition of typical weighting strategies in children with hearing loss. J. Speech Lang. Hear Res. 58, 466-480. doi: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-14-0254. pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Dynamic spectral structure specifies vowels for adults and children. Language and Speech 57, 487-512. doi: 10.1177/0023830913508075 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H., Wucinich, T., & Tarr, E. (2014). Benefits of preserving stationary and time-varying formant structure in alternative representations of speech: Implications for cochlear implants. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 1845-1856. doi: 10.1121/1.4895698 pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Separating the effects of acoustic and phonetic factors in linguistic processing with impoverished signals by adults and children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 333-370. doi:10.1017/S0142716412000410 / pdf

Moberly, A.C., Lowenstein, J.H., Tarr, E., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Welling, D.B., Shahin, A.J., & Nittrouer, S. (2014). Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing? J. Speech Lang. Hear Res. 57, 566-582. doi: 0.1044/2014_JSLHR-H-12-0323 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Tarr, E., Bolster, V., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Moberly, A.C., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Low-frequency signals support perceptual organization of implant-simulated speech for adults and children. Int. J. Audiol., 53, 270-284. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2013.871649 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2013). Working memory in children with cochlear implants: Problems are in storage, not processing. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 77, 1886-1898 pdf

Tarr, E. & Nittrouer, S. (2013). Explaining coherence in coherence masking protection for adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 4218-4231. doi: 10.1121/1.4802638 pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2013). Perceptual organization of speech signals by children with and without dyslexia. Res. Dev. Disabil., 34, 2304-2325. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.04.018 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H. & Tarr, E. (2013). Amplitude rise time does not cue the /bɑ/-wɑ/ contrast for adults or children. J. Speech Lang. Hear Res., 56, 427-440. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0075) pdf

Lowenstein, J.H., Nittrouer, S. & Tarr, E. (2012). Children weight dynamic spectral structure more than adults: Evidence from equivalent signals. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, EL443-EL449. doi:10.1121/1.4763554 pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2012). A New Perspective on Developmental Language Problems: Perceptual Organization Deficits. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 19, 87-97. doi: 10.1044/lle19.3.87 pdf

Tarr, E. & Nittrouer, S. (2011). Coherence masking protection for mid-frequency formants by adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130, EL290-EL296. doi: 10.1121/1.3638223 pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Tarr, E. (2011). Coherence masking protection for speech signals in children and adults. Atten. Percept. Psychophys., 73, 2606-2623. doi:10.3758/s13414-011-0210-y pdf

Phinney-Johnson, E., Pennington, B.F., Lowenstein, J.H., & Nittrouer, S. (2011). Sensitivity to structure in the speech signal by children with speech sound disorder and reading disability. J. Comm. Disord., 44, 294-314. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2011.01.001 pdf

Nittrouer, S., Shune, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2011). What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation. J. Exp. Child. Psychol., 108, 762-785. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.10.012 pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Pennington, B.F.(2010). New approaches to the study of childhood language disorders. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci., 19, 308-313. pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2010). Learning to perceptually organize speech signals in native fashion. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 127, 1624-1635. pdf

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H., and Packer, R.R. (2009). Children discover the spectral skeletons in their native language before the amplitude envelopes. J. Exper. Psychol.: Human Percep. and Perf., 35, 1245-1253. pdf

Nittrouer, S. and Lowenstein, J.H. (2009). Does harmonicity explain children?s cue weighting of fricative-vowel syllables? J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 125, 1679-1692. pdf

Lowenstein, J.H., and Nittrouer, S. (2008). Patterns of acquisition of native voice onset time in English-learning children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124, 1180-1191. pdf

Nittrouer, S., and Lowenstein, J.H. (2008). Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 123, 377-385. pdf

Nittrouer, S., and Lowenstein, J.H. (2007). Children’s weighting strategies for word-final stop voicing are not explained by auditory capacities. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res, 50, 58-73. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2006) Children hear the forest. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120, 1799-1802. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2005). Age-related differences in weighting and masking of two cues to word-final stop voicing in noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 118, 1072-1088. pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Burton, L. (2005). The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and phonological processing abilities: Evidence from 5-year-olds with histories of otitis media with effusion and low socioeconomic status. J. Comm. Dis., 38, 29-63. pdf

Nittrouer, S., Estee, S., Lowenstein, J.H., & Smith, J. (2005). The emergence of mature gestural patterns in the production of voiceless and voiced word-final stops. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 351-364. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2004). The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115, 1777-1790. pdf

McGowan, R.S., Nittrouer, S., & Manning, C. (2004). Development of [ɹ] in young, Midwestern, American children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 871-884. pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Burton, L. (2002) The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and language processing abilities in children with hearing loss. Volta Review 103, 5-37. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2002). From ear to cortex: A perspective on what clinicians need to understand about speech perception and language processing. Lang., Speech, and Hear. Services in Schools 33, 237-251. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2002). Learning to perceive speech: How fricative perception changes, and how it stays the same. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 711-719. pdf

Nittrouer, S, & Crowther, C.S. (2001). Coherence in children’s speech perception. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2129-2140. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (2001) Challenging the notion of innate phonetic boundaries. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1581-1597. pdf

Nittrouer, S., Miller, M.E., Crowther, C.S. & Manhart, M.J. (2000). The effect of segmental order on fricative labeling by children and adults. Percept. Psychophys. 62, 266-284. pdf

Nittrouer, S. & Miller, M.E. (1999). The development of phonemic coding strategies for serial recall. Appl. Psycholing. 20, 563-588. pdf

Nittrouer, S. (1999). Do temporal processing deficits cause phonological processing problems? J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 42, 925-942. pdf

The Ontogeny of Segmental Speech Organization
Selected Publications
Research in this laboratory is concerned with the development of phonological abilities in children developing language typically, and with what goes wrong in this process for children at risk for language problems.

The primary interest focuses on how typical children learn to extract phonemic structure from a complex acoustic signal that lacks invariant information about those phonemes. Another area of interest concerns how the development of phonemic knowledge is affected by conditions that put children at risk for language problems. This work is significant because learning to recognize phonemic structure in the acoustic speech signal is a necessary precursor to many other kinds of language skills, such as reading.

Because children with even mild hearing loss or children growing up in poverty seem to have some language delay, it may be that a child's ability to discover the phonemic structure of language is dependent on language experience. However, many children with reading disorders have had sufficient amounts of the right kinds of early language experience, but nonetheless have difficulties with language. Thus, other perceptual deficits are the likely source of problem for these children. A long-term goal for this laboratory is to investigate what goes wrong in the development of phonemic knowledge in children who encounter difficulty learning language.
Speech Development